固体废物管理书本内容

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2019-12-05
简介
污染物的释放途径不仅包含物理的迁移、扩散过程,而且还包含了更多的生物、化学转化的过程,使得其总体的环境影响形成过程表现为迟缓性和曲折性。从污染控制基本手段之一的末端处理来看,固体废物处理过程的成本以单位废弃物的质量计,远高于其他物态的废弃物。管理目标的核心:避免固体废物管理过程产生对人体健康的不利影响。固体废物管理的思想是对固体废物管理的根本性认识,并具体地表现为一系列解决管理问题的原则。

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固体废物管理第一章1、污染物的释放途径不仅包含物理的迁移、扩散过程,而且还包含了更多的生物、化学转化的过程,使得其总体的环境影响形成过程表现为迟缓性和曲折性。2、从污染控制基本手段之一的末端处理来看,固体废物处理过程的成本以单位废弃物的质量计,远高于其他物态的废弃物。3、管理目标的核心:避免固体废物管理过程产生对人体健康的不利影响。4、固体废物管理的思想是对固体废物管理的根本性认识,并具体地表现为一系列解决管理问题的原则。管理的思想的演化过程?(重点)1)人类早期的固体废物管理思想主要是隔离,对管理目的的指导主要体现为以固体废物的消纳—即为固体废物找到适当的、可实现空间隔离的去向为目的,其目标则为固体废物的清运率,管理的手段与技术是设置收集设施,及时地外运收集到的废物,并在远离人群聚居处的场所堆放。2)当废弃物堆放地产生的污染物流可通过迁移转化作用影响到人类聚居处环境质量的规律被认识后,管理的思想开始向无害化的方向发展,堆放技术向组合了环境污染控制措施的卫生填埋等技术转化。3)而当人类充分认识到发展过程中的人口—资源—环境危机的可能性生,固体废物的管理思想也就逐渐向着可持续发展的方向演化,并具体化为全过程固体废物管理的原则。5、固体废物管理的手段是管理方法设计的依据,而管理方法是实现管理目的的保障。管理手段与管理方法的区别在于管理手段强调的是管理作用形成的机制。6、固体废物管理的基础内容:1)固体废物产生源分析。2)固体废物管理的思想3)固体废物管理的法规。4)固体废物管理的技术体系5)固体废物管理的经济方法。6)固体废物管理的评价方法7)固体废物管理的规划。第二章7、固体废物的定义:基本定义:人类活动中,因无用或不需要而排出的固态物料(质)。法规定义:是指在生产建设、日常生活和其他活动中产生的污染环境的固态、半固态废物物质。8、现代社会固体废物的来源:1)生产过程:生产过程是现代固体废物的产生源。生产过程起始于原料获取,原料的两个基本来源是农产品和矿产品。农产品的生产属性属于农业生产过程,其固体废物来源于种植和畜牧业这两个农业的基本组成行业。种植业产生以作物秸秆为代表的植物性残余;畜牧业产生以畜、禽、鱼等的排泄物(粪便)为主的废物。矿产品的开采则属于工业一部分,其采集对象包括金属、能源和建筑用岩石等,其中又以金属尾矿、媒矸石等为主。在生产过程的末端,产生的是消费类产品,相当部分的产品在销售前需进行包装,包装过程同样会成为固体废物的来源。2)消费过程:消费过程同样是固体废物的产生源。农业消费产品在食用前的再加工过程会产生厨余废物;包装的工业消费产品,在使用前即产生包装废物;即使是所谓的耐用的消费品,如家用电器和交通工具等,超过消费使用期的此类物品亦成为固体废物。即便是人类的精神类消费品,如纸制的报刊、书籍、光碟等,这些物品废弃后同样是消费过程固体废物的重要来源。因此,可以说现代社会的存在就是固体废物的来源,固体废物来自于人类生产和生活的每一个角落。9、固体废物分类准则主要有(3)个:1)按来源分类:是按固体废物产生前的某些特征对其进行分类。2)按组成物料的性质分类3)按有无危险性(毒害性)分类up,andmemberscadresshoevocationalduediligencecombinedup,ensuresuccessfullycompletedearlydetermineofthetargettask,ensuresuccessfullycompletedlevelsleadershipgeneraltask,ensuresuccessfullycompletedpovertystormingannualtargettask,ensuresocialoverallharmonystable.Three,compactingthemainresponsibilitiesandstrengthenthe"two"leadershipofeducationalorganizationsdoagoodjob"two"educationwithoutastrongorganizationandleadership.Partyconstructionofpartyorganizationsatalllevelsshouldfirmlyestablishthemainconsciousness,graspingpartybuildingasthefirstresponsibility,strengthenleadership,demonstrable,scientifictoensuresolideducationeffectively.First,thelayersofresponsibility.Partycommittees(leadingpartygroup)tostudyeducationasamajorpoliticaltask,primaryresponsibilityforeffectiveimplementation,strengthenleadership,carefullyguidingtheSteering,doagoodjoboverall,studyandsolveproblemsinatimelymanner.Progressevaluationbythegrass-rootspartybuildingthisyear,tostudyeducationastheprimaryevaluationorganizations,poororganization,theproblemsaremany,tocriticize,toaccountability.Mainisresponsibleforcomradetoconsciouslybearupfirstresponsibilitypeopleduties,notonlytotubegoodcadres,andwithgoodteam,alsototubegoodmembers,andwithgoodteam,bothfirstexamples,leadparticipateinlearningeducation,andbyQiancommand,inputenoughoftimeandenergy,strengthenedGuideandchecksrole,onworkprogrammepersonallyvalidation,onimportanttaskpersonallydeployment,onexistsproblemtimelysolution,throughoutputresponsibilitycarryinshoulderShang,improper"shuaishouzhanggui".TheCountypartyCommitteeandmunicipalpartyCommitteemunicipalworkers,Variousenterprisesandinstitutions,Commission,partycommitteesanddepartmentsinchargeofindustrypractice,developspecificimplementationplan,organizingspecialforcesresponsibleforeducationalworktostrengthenthisunittothesystemstudyandeducationintheregionspecificguidance.Organizationdepartments,astheleaddepartment,tostrengthentheplanning,organization,coordinationandguidance,gooddesign,decomposition,eachkeyactiontoimplement.Carryoutstudyandeducation,torelyonstrictdocrealguide,pressureconveyinglayeruponlayer,stepbystep,compactionofresponsibility.InsteeringtheSteeringmustpreventformalism,catchthewaythethinkingofpreventionactivities,studyandeducation,preventingroutineaside,preventsimple,doingasmuchasmeetingnotestojudgetheeducationalresults.Totakereports,customizedresearch,attendingthemeeting,randomspotchecks,briefingsandothermeans,tofocusthepushGuidetograssroots,onthepartybranch,in-depthunderstandingofeducationandactualeffect,sumupfreshexperiencetopromotegrassroots,todetectandcorrectthesignsofproblems.Publicinformationepartmentsshouldpayspecialattentiontopublicopinion,in-depthinformationrelatingtoprovincial,municipalandCentraldecisionsandarrangementstopromoteeducationaleffectivenessandprogressofthetypicalexperience,andcreateagoodsocialatmosphere.Second,perseveringinaboverates.Leadingbodiesatalllevels,leadership,leadingcadresshouldtakethelead,asagoodexample,andaskingotherstodoyoufirstdoit,asksofothersandnotthemselvesdeterminednottodo,forexampleofsuperiortosubordinate,teamleaderforteammembersforexample,leveltolevel,levelwithlevels,layersofdrivenmodel,layeruponlayer,formationoftheshots,theoverallgeneraleffectoflinkage.Needstressedofis,regardlessofwhatranks,andwhatpostofmembersleaders,aretotoGeneralmembersidentityputhimselfpendulumin,seriouslyimplementationCentralandprovincial,andmunicipalonlearningeducationoftherequirements,strictlyimplementationdoubleorganised,basicsystem,leadlearningdiscussion,leadonexperience,andtoldpartylecture,andforreport,leadparticipateinorganisedwill,anddemocraticcomments,leadshoevocationalduediligence,andbasedpostforcontribution,do"fourtoldfourhas"ofqualifiedCommunist,strivetomakeslearningresearchmorein-depth,andcheckpendulumproblemmoredeep,Toreorganizetheimplementationofmoreradical,avant-gardemorerespectableimage,thuslearningeducationeffective.Third,strengthentheguidance.Theeducationforallmembers,largepersonnelbase,widefield,hierarchy,difference,andtodifferentiatebetweencounties,departments,grass-rootsunits,allkindsofpartyorganizationandpartymemberbetweentheactualcharacteristicsofhierarchicalclassificationpositionsputforwardmeasurestoprevent"floodirrigation."Tohaveoperable.Eachpartyshoulddevelopspecificprogrammesandspecificmeasures,educationprinciplesandlearningrequirementsintooperational,abletoputinplaceways.Tograspfromthespecificwork,hard,catchingfinepractice,withconcreteresultstoverifytheeducationalresults.Shouldbetargeted.Differentpartymember'sideologicaltrendsandbehaviors,differentialtreatmentineducation,precisionapplicationpolicy,"keystartslocks",downtolearnanddothemeasureseachpartymember,enablingthemtoaccesstoeducation,improve,makepeoplefeelMembersofthenewchanges.Toreflectthedifference.Nouniform,thousandsofpeople,andgiveexpressiondifferences,characteristics.Indeterminingthelearningwhenthetopicwasdiscussed,accordingtodifferentcharacteristicsandexistingproblemsofpartymembers,bothcloselylinkedtothetheme,andreality,letpartymemberslearn,ontheup.DoqualifiedCommunistofstandardalsocannotuniform,Countyabovemembersleadersstandardtomorehighmorestrict,toinsistedloyaltycleanplay,doJiaoYulutypeofgoodcadres;onCountyfollowingthefieldtheindustryofmembersto10、固体废物产生与来源的分析是认识固体废物管理问题的起点。第三章11、固体废物的消纳——指将固体废物及时地从产生位置转移或隔离至适当的空间置放,且这种置放所造成的影响难以为人类所察觉。12、为何消纳会在管理思想中长期居于支配地位?1)消纳之所以在固体废物管理思想中长期居于支配地位,首先在于其具有控制固体废物危害的依据。2)消纳在一定时期内,还具有废物的组成和量与自然生态可接受容量相容的依据。3)消纳是人类对环境问题的认识水平和认识手段的限制,使人类无法认识到固体废物消纳造成的一些深层交的环境影响,因此也就不可能对其提出质疑。正是这些条件使香蜡消纳在一定时期具有现实可行性,使其成为占支配地位的管理思想,并得以措施化地有效运行。13、固体废物消纳管理的实施涉及两个方面的基本措施:1)固体废物的及时收集和运输2)固体废物在适当的区域找到合适的置放空间。14、固体废物管理的“三化”原则:1)无害化:虽然仍然保留其规范固体废物处理处置过程中的环境影响控制原则的含义,但也应将对有害的认识扩展到资源、社会、经济等方面。2)减量化:不仅是通过处理与利用对已经产生的固体废物进行减量,而且应该延伸到对产生源头的控制和管理。通过对生产工艺、产品设计和销售过程中可导致过量产废环节的控制,从源头减少固体废物的产生,实施根本性的社会化固体废物减量原则。3)资源化:不再是处理与利用过程中通过狭义的工程技术手段来实现的目标,而应该从生产点的贮存、收运阶段及开始进行,从而成为贯穿整个固体废物管理体系的指导原则。15、焚烧作为最有效的减量化处理技术。16、可持续发展对固体废物管理的指导:固体废物管理作为解决一类环境问题的方法体系,必然需要且也可以从可持续发展战略思想中得到指导。1)固体废物不应该是人类发展的必然附属物。2)发福利量衡量发展是“减量化”的根本途径。3)“资源化”应融入经济发展体系之中。4)全社会应公平地参与固体废物管理5)延伸固体废物管理的权限可持续发展战略理论内涵的不断充实,也使之对于固体废物管理能进行有效的方向性引导,成为实施管理的战略性指南。而固体废物物流分析则可对管理行动进行更且体的指导。17、人类物质利用过程生态化——是使人类社会的物质利用过程尽可能地具有自然生态体系的物质利用过程的循环性、封闭性的特征。18、人类物质利用过程生态化,要求减少向自然环境排放的废物量,还要求排放废物的组成对自然生态系环境条件的影响最小化。19、遵循物质利用过程生态化原则的废物管理措施有;1)生产与销售技术的进步2)废物的再资源化:区别于从自然环境输入的一次原料,再资源化产生的原料可称为二次原料。3)改变消费模式4)优化废物处理技术:包括技术体系的优化和技术单元过程的优化,是改善废物排放特性的重要措施。5)分流有害废物up,andmemberscadresshoevocationalduediligencecombinedup,ensuresuccessfullycompletedearlydetermineofthetargettask,ensuresuccessfullycompletedlevelsleadershipgeneraltask,ensuresuccessfullycompletedpovertystormingannualtargettask,ensuresocialoverallharmonystable.Three,compactingthemainresponsibilitiesandstrengthenthe"two"leadershipofeducationalorganizationsdoagoodjob"two"educationwithoutastrongorganizationandleadership.Partyconstructionofpartyorganizationsatalllevelsshouldfirmlyestablishthemainconsciousness,graspingpartybuildingasthefirstresponsibility,strengthenleadership,demonstrable,scientifictoensuresolideducationeffectively.First,thelayersofresponsibility.Partycommittees(leadingpartygroup)tostudyeducationasamajorpoliticaltask,primaryresponsibilityforeffectiveimplementation,strengthenleadership,carefullyguidingtheSteering,doagoodjoboverall,studyandsolveproblemsinatimelymanner.Progressevaluationbythegrass-rootspartybuildingthisyear,tostudyeducationastheprimaryevaluationorganizations,poororganization,theproblemsaremany,tocriticize,toaccountability.Mainisresponsibleforcomradetoconsciouslybearupfirstresponsibilitypeopleduties,notonlytotubegoodcadres,andwithgoodteam,alsototubegoodmembers,andwithgoodteam,bothfirstexamples,leadparticipateinlearningeducation,andbyQiancommand,inputenoughoftimeandenergy,strengthenedGuideandchecksrole,onworkprogrammepersonallyvalidation,onimportanttaskpersonallydeployment,onexistsproblemtimelysolution,throughoutputresponsibilitycarryinshoulderShang,improper"shuaishouzhanggui".TheCountypartyCommitteeandmunicipalpartyCommitteemunicipalworkers,Variousenterprisesandinstitutions,Commission,partycommitteesanddepartmentsinchargeofindustrypractice,developspecificimplementationplan,organizingspecialforcesresponsibleforeducationalworktostrengthenthisunittothesystemstudyandeducationintheregionspecificguidance.Organizationdepartments,astheleaddepartment,tostrengthentheplanning,organization,coordinationandguidance,gooddesign,decomposition,eachkeyactiontoimplement.Carryoutstudyandeducation,torelyonstrictdocrealguide,pressureconveyinglayeruponlayer,stepbystep,compactionofresponsibility.InsteeringtheSteeringmustpreventformalism,catchthewaythethinkingofpreventionactivities,studyandeducation,preventingroutineaside,preventsimple,doingasmuchasmeetingnotestojudgetheeducationalresults.Totakereports,customizedresearch,attendingthemeeting,randomspotchecks,briefingsandothermeans,tofocusthepushGuidetograssroots,onthepartybranch,in-depthunderstandingofeducationandactualeffect,sumupfreshexperiencetopromotegrassroots,todetectandcorrectthesignsofproblems.Publicinformationepartmentsshouldpayspecialattentiontopublicopinion,in-depthinformationrelatingtoprovincial,municipalandCentraldecisionsandarrangementstopromoteeducationaleffectivenessandprogressofthetypicalexperience,andcreateagoodsocialatmosphere.Second,perseveringinaboverates.Leadingbodiesatalllevels,leadership,leadingcadresshouldtakethelead,asagoodexample,andaskingotherstodoyoufirstdoit,asksofothersandnotthemselvesdeterminednottodo,forexampleofsuperiortosubordinate,teamleaderforteammembersforexample,leveltolevel,levelwithlevels,layersofdrivenmodel,layeruponlayer,formationoftheshots,theoverallgeneraleffectoflinkage.Needstressedofis,regardlessofwhatranks,andwhatpostofmembersleaders,aretotoGeneralmembersidentityputhimselfpendulumin,seriouslyimplementationCentralandprovincial,andmunicipalonlearningeducationoftherequirements,strictlyimplementationdoubleorganised,basicsystem,leadlearningdiscussion,leadonexperience,andtoldpartylecture,andforreport,leadparticipateinorganisedwill,anddemocraticcomments,leadshoevocationalduediligence,andbasedpostforcontribution,do"fourtoldfourhas"ofqualifiedCommunist,strivetomakeslearningresearchmorein-depth,andcheckpendulumproblemmoredeep,Toreorganizetheimplementationofmoreradical,avant-gardemorerespectableimage,thuslearningeducationeffective.Third,strengthentheguidance.Theeducationforallmembers,largepersonnelbase,widefield,hierarchy,difference,andtodifferentiatebetweencounties,departments,grass-rootsunits,allkindsofpartyorganizationandpartymemberbetweentheactualcharacteristicsofhierarchicalclassificationpositionsputforwardmeasurestoprevent"floodirrigation."Tohaveoperable.Eachpartyshoulddevelopspecificprogrammesandspecificmeasures,educationprinciplesandlearningrequirementsintooperational,abletoputinplaceways.Tograspfromthespecificwork,hard,catchingfinepractice,withconcreteresultstoverifytheeducationalresults.Shouldbetargeted.Differentpartymember'sideologicaltrendsandbehaviors,differentialtreatmentineducation,precisionapplicationpolicy,"keystartslocks",downtolearnanddothemeasureseachpartymember,enablingthemtoaccesstoeducation,improve,makepeoplefeelMembersofthenewchanges.Toreflectthedifference.Nouniform,thousandsofpeople,andgiveexpressiondifferences,characteristics.Indeterminingthelearningwhenthetopicwasdiscussed,accordingodifferentcharacteristicsandexistingproblemsofpartymembers,bothcloselylinkedtothetheme,andreality,letpartymemberslearn,ontheup.DoqualifiedCommunistofstandardalsocannotuniform,Countyabovemembersleadersstandardtomorehighmorestrict,toinsistedloyaltycleanplay,doJiaoYulutypeofgoodcadres;onCountyfollowingthefieldtheindustryofmembersto36)进行废物的最终处置:最终处置——指在废物进入自然环境系统之前实施的对废物流最后的人工干涉。废物的最终处置主要是通过物理过程实施的,主要的技术手段是隔离、强化稀释扩散等。20、全过程固体废物管理的原则:1)产生源控制优先:废弃物管理的最高目标是所谓的“零排放”,最容易彀废弃物“零排放”的管理状态是废弃物的“零产生”,因此固体废物管理的最优先原则是对产生源的控制。产生源控制的目标,按照人类物质利用过程生态化的要求,包含减量和低毒两个。2)完善资源化体系:全过程固体废物管理的第二项原则是资源化固体废物产生后的最优先管理原则。3)有害废物的分流分流管理:必须从产生源分流开始管理。主要的管理实施手段中法规化管理应最为优先。4)最终处置无遗漏:全过程固体废物管理以物质循环利用和减量为有限原则,以避免自然环境排放废物为追求的目标。固体废物的最终处置过程是整个管理体系中功能最为单一、最为专性化的环节。21、固体废物管理边界一般包含了固体废物从产生源贮存与投弃至最终处置的全部环节,同时亦延伸至产品的原材料选择、设计和商品包装及含毒害物质商品销售的环节,以便更有力地实施源头控制和废物全过程管理。22、全过程固体废物管理实施框架,包括实施策略优先顺序和实施计划框架两个部分。其实施策略优先顺序的原则是源控制、资源化、无害化。23、全过程固体废物管理法规有:1)管理政策法规2)管理方法法规3)管理技术法规(技术标准)4)其他管理法规24、导致人类物质利用过程不可持续性的关键是其系统开放性的不适当扩大,有导致地球生态圈热力学平衡崩溃的潜在可能。为了改善人类物质利用过程的可持续性,必须同时对人类利用自然环境的起点和终点进行控制(即全过程)。第四章25、固体废物源分析——是对各类固体废物的产生源进行调查分析,以全面了解其产生的量、来源、组成、理化性质和其他相关背景状况的过程。26、固体废物源分析同样可以通过提供固体废物的来源、产生的社会经济影响等产生源信息,为固体废物是源控制法规的制定和实施提供依据。27、固体废物源分析的主要意义:1)提供固体废物源控制的思路2)提供规划与优化固体废物管理体系的依据(边界条件)3)提供固体废物管理技术设施设计与运行的基础参数28、固体废物源分析的方法,从实施手段的特征看,可以分为两类:一类是调查,另一类是分析。固体废物源调查的特征是直接获取描述信息和数据信息。29、固体废物源调查各阶段的基本工作内容:1)准备阶段:a拟定调查方案b组织调查队伍c准备调查文档d举办调查学习班e准备调查工具f调查试点:选择一些代表性的调查项目和详查点,进行试点调查。2)调查阶段:包括普查和详查。3)资料整理:数据录入,进行数据校验,数据概算。4)建立档案30、固体废物源分析是在固体废物源调查的基础上,应用数据分析和物质分析的方法。31、固体废物特性分析实质上是对固体废物的组成与理化特性进行分析的过程。up,andmemberscadresshoevocationalduediligencecombinedup,ensuresuccessfullycompletedearlydetermineofthetargettask,ensuresuccessfullycompletedlevelsleadershipgeneraltask,ensuresuccessfullycompletedpovertystormingannualtargettask,ensuresocialoverallharmonystable.Three,compactingthemainresponsibilitiesandstrengthenthe"two"leadershipofeducationalorganizationsdoagoodjob"two"educationwithoutastrongorganizationandleadership.Partyconstructionofpartyorganizationsatalllevelsshouldfirmlyestablishthemainconsciousness,graspingpartybuildingasthefirstresponsibility,strengthenleadership,demonstrable,scientifictoensuresolideducationeffectively.First,thelayersofresponsibility.Partycommittees(leadingpartygroup)tostudyeducationasamajorpoliticaltask,primaryresponsibilityforeffectiveimplementation,strengthenleadership,carefullyguidingtheSteering,doagoodjoboverall,studyandsolveproblemsinatimelymanner.Progressevaluationbythegrass-rootspartybuildingthisyear,tostudyeducationastheprimaryevaluationorganizations,poororganization,theproblemsaremany,tocriticize,toaccountability.Mainisresponsibleforcomradetoconsciouslybearupfirstresponsibilitypeopleduties,notonlytotubegoodcadres,andwithgoodteam,alsototubegoodmembers,andwithgoodteam,bothfirstexamples,leadparticipateinlearningeducation,andbyQiancommand,inputenoughoftimeandenergy,strengthenedGuideandchecksrole,onworkprogrammepersonallyvalidation,onimportanttaskpersonallydeployment,onexistsproblemtimelysolution,throughoutputresponsibilitycarryinshoulderShang,improper"shuaishouzhanggui".TheCountypartyCommitteeandmunicipalpartyCommitteemunicipalworkers,Variousenterprisesandinstitutions,Commission,partycommitteesanddepartmentsinchargeofindustrypractice,developspecificimplementationplan,organizingspecialforcesresponsibleforeducationalworktostrengthenthisunittothesystemstudyandeducationintheregionspecificguidance.Organizationdepartments,astheleaddepartment,tostrengthentheplanning,organization,coordinationandguidance,gooddesign,decomposition,eachkeyactiontoimplement.Carryoutstudyandeducation,torelyonstrictdocrealguide,pressureconveyinglayeruponlayer,stepbystep,compactionofresponsibility.InsteeringtheSteeringmustpreventformalism,catchthewaythethinkingofpreventionactivities,studyandeducation,preventingroutineaside,preventsimple,doingasmuchasmeetingnotestojud…
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